تعرف البيئة بأنها أجمالي الظروف الخارجية التي تؤثر في حياة الكائن الحي ونموه وبقائه. ومن المعروف أن البيئة الطبيعية تعتمد على ثلاث عناصر رئيسة هي الهـواء والمـاء والأرض وتعتبـر مـن أساسيات الحياة ويتميز النظام البيئي بالتوازن بين عناصره ويمكن للنظام البيئي أن يحافظ على هذا التوازن ولكن ضمن حدود معينة قابلة للتأثر. ونتيجة لحدوث الثورة الصناعية وتسارع التطور في مختلف مجالات الحياة واسـتخدام المكننـة وصناعة المواد الكيماوية والمواد المشعة وكذلك الزيادة في استخدام مصادر توليد الطاقـة والاسـتنزاف الجائر للموارد الطبيعية وحدوث الكوارث نتيجة النشاط الإنساني ، كل ذلك أدى إلى حدوث خلل في التوازن البيئي مما نتج عنه ظهور العديد من المشاكل البيئية.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ecosystem is characterised by the balance between its different elements such as water, air and earth. It can adapt to changes within certain limits, however, the development in life, technological advancement, the use of machinery and radioactive chemicals, the great pressure on natural resources as well as pollutants produced by human activities have all led to huge a imbalance. Hence, the environment and its protection are considered one of the main tasks facing governments in general. In our country, Iraq, this has gained an exceptional importance particularly owing to what the country has through during over two decades of continuous destructive wars and the deep environmental deterioration they inflected on all its elements; soil, water and air.

 

 

 

Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system. Thus, Iraq faces difficulties to realize the target of 91% of households using safe drinking water supply by 2015. Currently, 16% of households report daily problems with supply and 20% use an unsafe drinking water source. Furthermore, animal waste and septic tanks pollute the drinking water network.(11)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

A LONG HISTORY OF UNSTABLE rule, border disputes, and religious strife has created continuous conflict in Iraq, with wars conducted from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. Iraq took part in World Wars I and II. The Persian Gulf wars had three phases: 1980 to 1988, 1988 to 1991, and 2003 to 2010.1,2 The American involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan represent the most sustained combat in the world since the Vietnam War.3
War causes worker shortages, skill-set imbalances, and unreliable distribution of supplies.4 Unstable leadership, disputed territory, and degradation of land and supplies lead to various public health challenges, which Iraq has experienced throughout the past century.5 Iraq’s geography exposes inhabitants to significant threats of waterborne and infectious diseases because of the construction of cities along the

 

 

 

 

The use of treated waste water is important for agriculture development; farmers in Iraq have been utilizing sewage water without treatment the most serious problems in this area are related to pathogens, heavy metal contamination andsalinity build –up.
Studies carried out in Iraq have shown that treated sewage water can be used to irrigate fodder crop and some vegetables. In general, in Baghdad, treated effluent directed to the Diyala River from treatment plants goes to Tigris River through additional natural flow purification processes before it is abstracted for irrigation downstream.

 

 

 

The semi autonomous state of Iraqi Kurdistan has plenty of water. For the time being at least. But experts warn that a water crisis is coming and that, despite plans to build dozens of dams, local authorities are…
Her face is covered in sweat and she turns to check that her daughter is alright. Halima Mustafa, 43, is carrying a large bucket of water on her head and she has another large bucket in her hand. Her 10- year-old daughter Coral is beside her, also carrying two buckets of water. Everything drips as the pair makes their way slowly home.